Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 22 pp 23017—23028

Autophagy is induced in human keratinocytes during human papillomavirus 11 pseudovirion entry

Figure 4. Autolysosome formation is induced by HPV11 PsVs upon entry of NHEKs and enhanced by rapamycin. (A) Confocal microscopy analysis of HPV11 PsV-infected NHEKs transfected with the mCherry-GFP-LC3 plasmid. Experiments were performed with or without pre-treatment with the canonical autophagy activator rapamycin. (B) Quantification of the ratio of red puncta (autolysosomes) to all puncta (autophagosomes plus autolysosomes). The graph represents the mean and standard deviation from three biological independent repeats, and at least 100 cells were analyzed per repeat. Significant differences were identified by Student’s t test. *, P < 0.05; ***, P < 0.005.