Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 22 pp 23017—23028

Autophagy is induced in human keratinocytes during human papillomavirus 11 pseudovirion entry

Figure 6. HPV11 PsV cellular entry activates autophagy through mTOR signaling. (A, B) Western analysis of phosphorylated and total mTOR and its substrate proteins 4EBP1, p70S6K1, and ULK1 in NHEKs (A) or HaCaT cells (B) during HPV11 PsV entry. The ratio of the phosphorylated and total proteins was quantified and normalized to β-Actin and uninfected controls. The graph represents the mean and standard deviation from three biological independent repeats. Significant differences were identified by Student’s t test. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.005.