Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 22 pp 23017—23028

Autophagy is induced in human keratinocytes during human papillomavirus 11 pseudovirion entry

Figure 8. The inhibition of Erk/mTOR signaling by HPV11 PsVs entry was rescued by PDBu pre-treatment in NHEKs (A) or HaCaT cells (B). The ratio of the phosphorylated and total proteins was quantified to demonstrate the activity of Erk and mTOR signaling respectively. The graph represents the mean and standard deviation from three independent repeats. Significant differences were identified by Student’s t test. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ***, P < 0.005.