V. unguiculata extract is neuroprotective in a dose-dependent manner in a C. elegans model of α-synuclein toxicity. (A) The four CEP neurons (indicated by arrowheads), expressing DsRed and human α-synuclein, are viable and with a wild type morphology in young adult animals cultivated in mock conditions (left panel); only one neuron is visible and viable after 6 days from adult stage cultivated in mock conditions (central panel); 0.5% V. unguiculata extract partially rescued the neurodegeneration after 6 days from adult stage (right panel). Anterior is to the left. (B) Quantification of dopaminergic neuron loss in human α-synuclein expressing animals grown with 0.2% and 0.5% of V. unguiculata extract. ***p<0.001, ****p<0.0001. The number of animals scored with mock is 95, with 0.2% extract is 103, with 0.5% extract is 94 and with 3 mM valproic acid 92.