Research Paper Advance Articles pp 24168—24183

Oxidative stress mediates age-related hypertrophy of ligamentum flavum by inducing inflammation, fibrosis, and apoptosis through activating Akt and MAPK pathways

Figure 3. Inflammation was present in the hypertrophic LF. The expressions of (A) iNOS and (B) NO were increased in LF specimens from the LSS patients. (n = 21 and 43, respectively; * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 compared to the LDH group; the value was generated by unpaired t-test.) (The lanes on Figure 3A were run on the same gel but were noncontiguous.).