Research Paper Advance Articles pp 24168—24183

Oxidative stress mediates age-related hypertrophy of ligamentum flavum by inducing inflammation, fibrosis, and apoptosis through activating Akt and MAPK pathways

Figure 4. The Akt, JNK, and p38 MAPK pathways were rapidly activated after administration of H2O2-induced oxidative stress. (A) The expression of proteins of MAPK networks. The quantified protein expression ratio of (B) phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) to total Akt, (C) phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK) to total JNK, and (D) phosphorylated p38 MAPK (p-p38) to total p38. The horizontal axis indicates the duration of subjecting the LF cells to the H2O2-induced oxidative stress. (n = 6; * p < 0.05 compared to the control group (0’); the value was generated by one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey’s test.).