Research Paper Advance Articles pp 24168—24183

Oxidative stress mediates age-related hypertrophy of ligamentum flavum by inducing inflammation, fibrosis, and apoptosis through activating Akt and MAPK pathways

Figure 5. The expressions of inflammatory markers and fibrotic markers increased after administration of H2O2-induced oxidative stress. (A) The expression of inflammatory markers and fibrotic markers. The quantified protein expression ratio of (B) phosphorylated NF-κB p65 (S536) and (C) iNOS increased substantially under oxidative stress, suggesting the activation of inflammatory processes. The expressions of fibrotic signals such as (D) TGF-β and (E) β-catenin increased after 48 hours, followed by increases in fibrotic markers including (F) α-SMA and (G) vimentin. (n = 6; * p < 0.05 compared to the control group (0’); the value was generated by one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey’s test.).