Figure 3. TNFAIP3 promotes autophagy in LPS-stimulated human NPCs. (A) The effect of TNFAIP3 on autophagy in LPS-stimulated human NPCs. Morphological observation of autophagosome under transmission electron microscope, amplification × 15,000, n>3. (B) The number of autophagosomes. (C–E) The NPCs were the primary cell cultures from LVF patients without IVDD. Con, no LPS treatment; LPS+TNFAIP3-His and LPS+ TNFAIP3-siRNA, TNFAIP3 and its siRNA were delivered into the NPCs by adenovirus expressing TNFAIP3-His and TNFAIP3-siRNA, respectively. Western blot analysis of LC3II and P62 expression in human NPCs (F) Human NPCs were transfected with adenovirus containing GFP-LC3 and the formation and distribution of GFP-LC3 punctate were observed under confocal microscopy, amplification × 800. Data are represented by the mean ± standard deviation of 3 independent experiments. *** P<0.01, ** P<0.05, * P>0.05 by the Student’s t-test.