Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 2 pp 2655—2667

Fucoxanthin attenuates LPS-induced acute lung injury via inhibition of the TLR4/MyD88 signaling axis

Fucoxanthin directly binds TLR4 inhibiting the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway. (A) Western blotting analysis of TLR4 and MYD88 for RAW 264.7 cells pretreated with different concentrations of the Fucoxanthin for 1h followed by LPS treatment (100ng/ml) for another 24 h. (B) The expression level of NLRP3, Il-1β, and caspase-1 were determined by immunoblotting (C) Schematic representations 3D of the binding interactions between the mouse TLR4/MD-2 complex active site and Fucoxanthin. MD-2 was shown in a light green ribbon and TLR4 in a light orange ribbon (left) close-up view of the predicted interaction between Fucoxanthin and the MD-2-binding site TLR4-MD-2 complex. MD-2 was shown in light green and TLR4 in light orange; moreover, the hydrogen bond is shown in green. (D) Schematic representations 2D of the binding interactions between the mouse TLR4/MD-2 complex active site and Fucoxanthin.

Figure 6. Fucoxanthin directly binds TLR4 inhibiting the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway. (A) Western blotting analysis of TLR4 and MYD88 for RAW 264.7 cells pretreated with different concentrations of the Fucoxanthin for 1h followed by LPS treatment (100ng/ml) for another 24 h. (B) The expression level of NLRP3, Il-1β, and caspase-1 were determined by immunoblotting (C) Schematic representations 3D of the binding interactions between the mouse TLR4/MD-2 complex active site and Fucoxanthin. MD-2 was shown in a light green ribbon and TLR4 in a light orange ribbon (left) close-up view of the predicted interaction between Fucoxanthin and the MD-2-binding site TLR4-MD-2 complex. MD-2 was shown in light green and TLR4 in light orange; moreover, the hydrogen bond is shown in green. (D) Schematic representations 2D of the binding interactions between the mouse TLR4/MD-2 complex active site and Fucoxanthin.