Research Paper Advance Articles pp 23478—23496

Transforming growth factor beta type 1 (TGF-β) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) transcription complex as master regulators of the immunosuppressive protein galectin-9 expression in human cancer and embryonic cells

Figure 2. Increased redox status, upregulated HIF-1α and TGF-β/Smad3 pathways as well as Tim-3 and galectin-9 expression in primary human AML cells compared to non-transformed mononuclear leukocytes. Measurements were conducted in primary human AML cells vs primary mononuclear leukocytes obtained from healthy donors. Activities of xanthine oxidase, NADPH oxidase and TBRS levels (A). Levels of accumulated HIF-1α protein and phospho-S423/S425-Smad3 (B). Levels of secreted TGF-β, Tim-3 and galectin-9 measured in cell culture medium (C). Images are from one experiment representative of five which gave similar results. Data are shown as mean values ± SEM of five independent experiments. * - p < 0.05 and ** - p < 0.01 vs non-transformed (“healthy”) primary human mononuclear leukocytes (abbreviated as PHL – “primary healthy leukocytes”).