Research Paper Advance Articles pp 23478—23496

Transforming growth factor beta type 1 (TGF-β) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) transcription complex as master regulators of the immunosuppressive protein galectin-9 expression in human cancer and embryonic cells

Figure 9. The effects of TGF-β on Smad3 phosphorylation in human cancer and non-malignant cells. (A) MCF-7 (breast cancer), (B) HaCaT (keratinocytes) and (C) primary human keratinocytes were exposed for 24 h to 2 ng/ml TGF-β followed by Western blot analysis of phospho-S423/S425-Smad3 levels. Images are from one experiment representative of four which gave similar results. Data are shown as mean values ± SEM of four independent experiments. * - p < 0.05 vs control.