Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 3 pp 3898—3908

Intranasal treatment of lixisenatide attenuated emotional and olfactory symptoms via CREB-mediated adult neurogenesis in mouse depression model

CREB mediates the effects of LXT to improve adult neurogenesis and related behaviors. (A, B) Western blot band and statistical analysis to show the phosphorylation of CREB at pSer333 and the total protein level. (C) Schematic picture to show the experimental process. Mice with CUMS protocol was conducted with 666-15 treatment and combined with the intranasal administration of the LXT. (D) Confocal image to show the distribution and cell number of DCX+ immature neurons (Red) in hippocampal DG region. (E) Statistical analysis of DCX+ immature neuronal density. (F) Statistical analysis of immobility time in FST. (G) Statistical analysis of the duration of the sniff and the separation index (sniff duration of pentanol) of mice in olfactory discrimination test.

Figure 4. CREB mediates the effects of LXT to improve adult neurogenesis and related behaviors. (A, B) Western blot band and statistical analysis to show the phosphorylation of CREB at pSer333 and the total protein level. (C) Schematic picture to show the experimental process. Mice with CUMS protocol was conducted with 666-15 treatment and combined with the intranasal administration of the LXT. (D) Confocal image to show the distribution and cell number of DCX+ immature neurons (Red) in hippocampal DG region. (E) Statistical analysis of DCX+ immature neuronal density. (F) Statistical analysis of immobility time in FST. (G) Statistical analysis of the duration of the sniff and the separation index (sniff duration of pentanol) of mice in olfactory discrimination test.