Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 3 pp 3254—3268

Examining sleep deficiency and disturbance and their risk for incident dementia and all-cause mortality in older adults across 5 years in the United States

Estimated survival curves displaying the relationships between sleep variables and all-cause mortality, adjusting for covariates, which were found to be significant in the Cox hazard proportional models. (A) Survival curve from Cox model examining all-cause mortality and difficulty maintaining alertness, adjusting for covariates. Difficulty maintaining alertness “Some Days” and “Most Days/Every Day,” as compared to “Never/Rarely,” were associated a greater risk of all-cause mortality (pB) Survival curve from the Cox model examining all-cause mortality and napping, adjusting for covariates. Napping “Some Days” and “Most Days/Every Day,” as compared to “Never/Rarely,” were associated a greater risk of all-cause mortality (pC) Survival curve from Cox model examining all-cause mortality and sleep quality, adjusting for covariates. Sleep quality reported to be “Poor/Very Poor,” as compared to “Good/Very Good,” was associated a greater risk of all-cause mortality (pD) Survival curve from Cox model examining all-cause mortality and sleep duration, adjusting for covariates. Sleep duration ≤5 hours, as compared to 7-8 hours, was associated a greater risk of all-cause mortality (p

Figure 2. Estimated survival curves displaying the relationships between sleep variables and all-cause mortality, adjusting for covariates, which were found to be significant in the Cox hazard proportional models. (A) Survival curve from Cox model examining all-cause mortality and difficulty maintaining alertness, adjusting for covariates. Difficulty maintaining alertness “Some Days” and “Most Days/Every Day,” as compared to “Never/Rarely,” were associated a greater risk of all-cause mortality (p<0.01 and p<0.01, respectively). (B) Survival curve from the Cox model examining all-cause mortality and napping, adjusting for covariates. Napping “Some Days” and “Most Days/Every Day,” as compared to “Never/Rarely,” were associated a greater risk of all-cause mortality (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). (C) Survival curve from Cox model examining all-cause mortality and sleep quality, adjusting for covariates. Sleep quality reported to be “Poor/Very Poor,” as compared to “Good/Very Good,” was associated a greater risk of all-cause mortality (p<0.01). (D) Survival curve from Cox model examining all-cause mortality and sleep duration, adjusting for covariates. Sleep duration ≤5 hours, as compared to 7-8 hours, was associated a greater risk of all-cause mortality (p<0.01).