Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 13 pp 17880—17900

Anti-aging effects of a functional food via the action of gut microbiota and metabolites in aging mice

Effects of WS on the learning memory and the neuronal molecules in mice. (A) The ratio of active avoidance response (%). (B) Passive avoidance reaction time (s). *P P P #P ##P ###P C) Images of the HE stained hippocampus in the mouse cerebrum at 100× and 400× magnification. (D) Immunohistochemical images of Aβ expression in tissues from the mouse cerebrum at 20× and 400× magnification. (E) Immunohistochemical images of GFAP expression in tissues from the mouse cerebrum at 50× and 400× magnification.

Figure 2. Effects of WS on the learning memory and the neuronal molecules in mice. (A) The ratio of active avoidance response (%). (B) Passive avoidance reaction time (s). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 relative to the control group, and #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01, ###P < 0.001 relative to the SD group. (C) Images of the HE stained hippocampus in the mouse cerebrum at 100× and 400× magnification. (D) Immunohistochemical images of Aβ expression in tissues from the mouse cerebrum at 20× and 400× magnification. (E) Immunohistochemical images of GFAP expression in tissues from the mouse cerebrum at 50× and 400× magnification.