Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 12 pp 16088—16104

High glucose exacerbates neuroinflammation and apoptosis at the intermediate stage after post-traumatic brain injury

Hyperglycemia upregulated pro-inflammatory and downregulated anti-inflammatory factors. (A) Serum IL-1β. (B) Serum TNF-α. (C) Serum IL-10. (D) Serum TGF-β. (E) Hippocampal IL-1β mRNA. (F) Hippocampal TNF-α mRNA. (G) Hippocampal IL-10 mRNA. (H) Hippocampal TGF-β mRNA. β-actin mRNA expression was used as the qRT-PCR control. All data are presented as the mean ± standard error (n = 8 per group). Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Bonferroni correction. &P &&P #P ##P *P **P

Figure 3. Hyperglycemia upregulated pro-inflammatory and downregulated anti-inflammatory factors. (A) Serum IL-1β. (B) Serum TNF-α. (C) Serum IL-10. (D) Serum TGF-β. (E) Hippocampal IL-1β mRNA. (F) Hippocampal TNF-α mRNA. (G) Hippocampal IL-10 mRNA. (H) Hippocampal TGF-β mRNA. β-actin mRNA expression was used as the qRT-PCR control. All data are presented as the mean ± standard error (n = 8 per group). Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Bonferroni correction. &P < 0.05 or &&P < 0.01 vs. results at 48 h; #P < 0.05 or ##P < 0.01 vs. the Sham group; *P < 0.05 or **P < 0.01 vs. the TBI group.