Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 12 pp 16567—16576

Reduced stem cell aging in exercised human skeletal muscle is enhanced by ginsenoside Rg1

Biomarkers of cellular senescence in human skeletal muscle 24 h after squat exercise. The p16INK4a+ cells (A) and ß-Gal+ cells (B) are indicated by brown precipitates surrounding myofibers in the immunohistochemical stains of muscle cross-sections. No significant changes in quantity of p16INK4a+ cells (C) and ß-Gal+ cells (D) Were observed post exercise during PLA- and Rg1-supplemented trials. Squat exercise decreased p16INK4a mRNA (E) While no effect on ß-Gal mRNA (F) in vastus lateralis muscle of young men with training experience. *denotes significant difference against Pre, p **denotes significant difference against Pre, p +: ß-Galactosidase; PLA: Placebo; Rg1: Ginsenoside Rg1.

Figure 1. Biomarkers of cellular senescence in human skeletal muscle 24 h after squat exercise. The p16INK4a+ cells (A) and ß-Gal+ cells (B) are indicated by brown precipitates surrounding myofibers in the immunohistochemical stains of muscle cross-sections. No significant changes in quantity of p16INK4a+ cells (C) and ß-Gal+ cells (D) Were observed post exercise during PLA- and Rg1-supplemented trials. Squat exercise decreased p16INK4a mRNA (E) While no effect on ß-Gal mRNA (F) in vastus lateralis muscle of young men with training experience. *denotes significant difference against Pre, p < 0.05; **denotes significant difference against Pre, p < 0.01. Abbreviations: Pre: before exercise; Post: 24 h after exercise. ß-Gal+: ß-Galactosidase; PLA: Placebo; Rg1: Ginsenoside Rg1.