Figure 1. Biomarkers of cellular senescence in human skeletal muscle 24 h after squat exercise. The p16INK4a+ cells (A) and ß-Gal+ cells (B) are indicated by brown precipitates surrounding myofibers in the immunohistochemical stains of muscle cross-sections. No significant changes in quantity of p16INK4a+ cells (C) and ß-Gal+ cells (D) Were observed post exercise during PLA- and Rg1-supplemented trials. Squat exercise decreased p16INK4a mRNA (E) While no effect on ß-Gal mRNA (F) in vastus lateralis muscle of young men with training experience. *denotes significant difference against Pre, p < 0.05; **denotes significant difference against Pre, p < 0.01. Abbreviations: Pre: before exercise; Post: 24 h after exercise. ß-Gal+: ß-Galactosidase; PLA: Placebo; Rg1: Ginsenoside Rg1.