Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 12 pp 16656—16666

Programmed death-1 mediates venous neointimal hyperplasia in humans and rats

Intraperitoneal (IP) injection of PD-1 antibody decreases PD-1 expression after patch venoplasty in rats. (A) Western blot showing the expression of PD-1 and TGF β1 after the intraperitoneal injection of the PD-1 antibody in rat IVCs and neointimas at day 14; n = 3. (B) Bar graph showing PD-1 (*p = 0.0096, t-test) and TGF β1 (*p = 0.0023, t-test) density; n = 3. (C) Merged immunofluorescence images showing CD3 (green), PD-1 (red) and DAPI (blue); CD68 (green), PD-1 (red) and DAPI (blue); CD3 (green), PDL-1 (red) and DAPI (blue); CD68 (green), PDL-1 (red) and DAPI (blue); TGF β1 (green), PD-1 (red) and DAPI (blue); PCNA (green), α-actin (red) and DAPI (blue); scale bar, 100 μm; n = 6. (D) Bar graphs showing CD3 and PD-1 dual-positive cells (*p t-test); CD68 and PD-1 dual-positive cells (*p t-test), CD3 and PDL-1 dual-positive cells (*p t-test); CD68 and PDL-1 dual-positive cells (*p t-test), PCNA and α-actin dual-positive cells (*p t-test); n = 6.

Figure 3. Intraperitoneal (IP) injection of PD-1 antibody decreases PD-1 expression after patch venoplasty in rats. (A) Western blot showing the expression of PD-1 and TGF β1 after the intraperitoneal injection of the PD-1 antibody in rat IVCs and neointimas at day 14; n = 3. (B) Bar graph showing PD-1 (*p = 0.0096, t-test) and TGF β1 (*p = 0.0023, t-test) density; n = 3. (C) Merged immunofluorescence images showing CD3 (green), PD-1 (red) and DAPI (blue); CD68 (green), PD-1 (red) and DAPI (blue); CD3 (green), PDL-1 (red) and DAPI (blue); CD68 (green), PDL-1 (red) and DAPI (blue); TGF β1 (green), PD-1 (red) and DAPI (blue); PCNA (green), α-actin (red) and DAPI (blue); scale bar, 100 μm; n = 6. (D) Bar graphs showing CD3 and PD-1 dual-positive cells (*p < 0.0001, t-test); CD68 and PD-1 dual-positive cells (*p < 0.0001, t-test), CD3 and PDL-1 dual-positive cells (*p <0.0001, t-test); CD68 and PDL-1 dual-positive cells (*p < 0.0001, t-test), PCNA and α-actin dual-positive cells (*p < 0.0001, t-test); n = 6.