Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 12 pp 16656—16666

Programmed death-1 mediates venous neointimal hyperplasia in humans and rats

PD-1- and BMS-1-coated patches decrease neointimal thickness after patch venoplasty in rats. (A) Representative image of the patch stained with H&E at day 14; first row: a low-power image of H&E staining; second row: a high-power image of H&E staining showing the neointima; third row: merged immunofluorescence image of vWF (green) and DAPI (blue) staining showing the neointima; scale bar, 100 μm; n = 6. (B) Bar graph showing neointimal thickness; p *p n = 6. (C) Bar graph showing neointimal reendothelialization; p = 0.9746, n = 6. one-way ANOVA.

Figure 5. PD-1- and BMS-1-coated patches decrease neointimal thickness after patch venoplasty in rats. (A) Representative image of the patch stained with H&E at day 14; first row: a low-power image of H&E staining; second row: a high-power image of H&E staining showing the neointima; third row: merged immunofluorescence image of vWF (green) and DAPI (blue) staining showing the neointima; scale bar, 100 μm; n = 6. (B) Bar graph showing neointimal thickness; p < 0.0001, one-way ANOVA; *p < 0.0001, Tukey's multiple comparisons test. n = 6. (C) Bar graph showing neointimal reendothelialization; p = 0.9746, n = 6. one-way ANOVA.