Figure 3. Effects of transplantation of fecal microbiota from control and sevoflurane-treated mice on behavior of pseudo germ-free mice. (A) Experimental summary: fecal microbiota transplantation effects on behavioral testing in pseudo germ-free mice. Wild-type male mice were first treated by administering high doses of antibiotic solution for 14 consecutive days on PND 21–34. Thereafter, mice were orally treated with fetal microbiota of control and anesthesia mice on PND 35–48. The MWM test was performed on PND 49–54. Fecal samples were collected for 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing testing on PND 55. (B) Body weight (two-way ANOVA; Time: F2,72 = 959.6, p < 0.001; Group: F3,36 = 1.795, p = 0.17; Interaction: F6,72 = 1.209, p = 0.31). (C) Trace plot of mice in the MWM test. (D) Escape latency (two-way ANOVA; Time: F4,144 = 35.46, p < 0.001; Group: F3,36 = 14.51, p < 0.001; Interaction: F12,144 = 4.436, p < 0.001). (E) Platform-crossing instances (one-way ANOVA; F3,36 = 12.20, p < 0.001). (F) Time spent in the fourth quadrant (one-way ANOVA; F3,36 = 8.812, p = 0.0002). (G) Mean distance from the platform (one-way ANOVA; F3,36 = 12.56, p < 0.001). PND: postnatal day; ANOVA: analysis of variance; MWM: Morris water maze. Data are shown as mean ± SEM (n = 10). * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001.