Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 13 pp 17211—17226

Effects of long-term low dose saxitoxin exposure on nerve damage in mice

STX impaired cognitive performance of the mice. (A, B) STX significantly reduced the step-down latency and increased the number of errors made by the step-down passive avoidance (SDPA) test. STX aggravated spatial learning and memory deficits in C57BL/6NJ mice assessed by the Morris water maze (MWM) test. (C) The escape latency of mice in a training session from day 1 to day 5. (D) The swimming trajectory of mice during the probe test. (E–H) Differences in probe time, the number of crossing movements, percent of time spent in the platform quadrant, and percent of distance travelled in the platform quadrant in the probe trial of the MWM test. Bar graphs show mean {plus minus} SEM, (n=12 for each group), *p

Figure 2. STX impaired cognitive performance of the mice. (A, B) STX significantly reduced the step-down latency and increased the number of errors made by the step-down passive avoidance (SDPA) test. STX aggravated spatial learning and memory deficits in C57BL/6NJ mice assessed by the Morris water maze (MWM) test. (C) The escape latency of mice in a training session from day 1 to day 5. (D) The swimming trajectory of mice during the probe test. (EH) Differences in probe time, the number of crossing movements, percent of time spent in the platform quadrant, and percent of distance travelled in the platform quadrant in the probe trial of the MWM test. Bar graphs show mean {plus minus} SEM, (n=12 for each group), *p<0.05, **p<0.01 or ***p<0.001 vs. CT group by two-tailed unpaired Student's t-test.