Figure 4. Mean changes from baseline at study end of exploratory blood biomarkers. Compared to the control group (-1.62 ± 19.01 ng/mL), serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were significantly increased in the FMI group (11.83 ± 20.06 ng/mL) but not in the HMI group (0.67 ± 20.61 ng/mL). Compared to the control group (54.18 ± 136.01 ng/mL), plasma cortisol levels were significantly decreased in both the FMI (-5.29 ± 154.01 ng/mL) and HMI groups (-15.29 ± 172.09 ng/mL) at the study endpoint. The mean changes in serum neurofilament light chain (NFL) levels from baseline to the study endpoint were as follows: 4.21 (7.65) pg/ml decrease in the FMI group, 0.62 (8.74) pg/ml decrease in the HMI group, and 1.98 (9.77) pg/ml decrease in the control group. The mean changes in serum YKL-40 levels at the study endpoint from baseline were as follows: 2.19 (65.33) ng/mL decrease in the FMI group, 12.76 (68.58) ng/mL decrease in the HMI group, and 4.62 (57.49) ng/mL increase in the control group. Bars and lines show the mean and standard error of the mean, respectively. The P values represent the results of comparisons between each intervention group and the control group by the analysis of covariance with the baseline level as a covariate. FMI, facility-based multidomain intervention; HMI, home-based multidomain intervention.