Figure 4. GAL-1/LGALS1 activates TGF-β/Smad signaling pathways in GC tissues. (A) Representative images of IHC for GAL-1, TGF-β1, and p-Smad2/3 protein levels in GCT and NGCT. Magnification: ×400. (B, C) Significant differences in TGF-β1 and p-Smad2/3 levels were observed between GCT and NGCT (all P < 0.01). (D) The TGF-β1 IHC scores in GAL-1-positive GCT were significantly higher than those in GAL-1-negative GCT (P < 0.01). (E) The TGF-β1 IHC scores correlate positively with the GAL-1 IHC scores in GC tissues (r = 0.97; P < 0.01).