Figure 7. GAL-1/ LGALS1 promotes GC cell metastasis in vivo through the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. (A) OE-LGALS1 induced MGC-803 to form subcutaneous xenograft tumors with larger volumes (B) and weighs (C) (expressed as the mean ± SE). * P <0.05, ** P< 0.01, n = 6. (D) OE-LGALS1 increased the levels of TGF-β1 and p-Smad2/3, and induced EMT in the subcutaneous xenograft tumor, ITD1 could inhibit this effect. Metastases were frequent in the (E). (F) Representative images of metastasis (yellow arrows) in the lungs at 50 days after inoculation, and representative images of H&E staining. Original magnification: ×400. (G) Immunostaining showing GAL-1, E-cadherin, vimentin, TGF-β1 and p-Smad2/3 levels in pulmonary metastases. Magnification: ×400.