Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 14 pp 18545—18563

The anti-dysenteric drug fraxetin enhances anti-tumor efficacy of gemcitabine and suppresses pancreatic cancer development by antagonizing STAT3 activation

Fraxetin inhibits tumor growth and metastasis of PDA in animal xenograft models. (A) Effects of fraxetin on experimental groups’ morphologic changes. (B) Effect of fraxetin on the volume of tumors in animal xenograft models. (C) Effects of fraxetin on tumor weight. (D) PDA pathological results in tissues of the model group stained with HE. Bar = 50 μm. (E) Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for Ki67 in fraxetin-treated models. Bar = 50 μm. (F, G) Western blot analysis of cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 expression in PANC-1 and Patu8988 cells treated with or without fraxetin. (H) IHC staining for E-cadherin in fraxetin-treated models. Bar = 50 μm. (I, J) Western blot analysis of E-cadherin and Slug expression in PANC-1 and Patu8988 cells treated with or without fraxetin. Data were presented as the mean ± standard deviation, and were analyzed by a two-sided Student’s t-test. *P **P ***P

Figure 3. Fraxetin inhibits tumor growth and metastasis of PDA in animal xenograft models. (A) Effects of fraxetin on experimental groups’ morphologic changes. (B) Effect of fraxetin on the volume of tumors in animal xenograft models. (C) Effects of fraxetin on tumor weight. (D) PDA pathological results in tissues of the model group stained with HE. Bar = 50 μm. (E) Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for Ki67 in fraxetin-treated models. Bar = 50 μm. (F, G) Western blot analysis of cleaved caspase-8, cleaved caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 expression in PANC-1 and Patu8988 cells treated with or without fraxetin. (H) IHC staining for E-cadherin in fraxetin-treated models. Bar = 50 μm. (I, J) Western blot analysis of E-cadherin and Slug expression in PANC-1 and Patu8988 cells treated with or without fraxetin. Data were presented as the mean ± standard deviation, and were analyzed by a two-sided Student’s t-test. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.