Figure 4. EMPs-mediated PDI-dependent platelet activation: PDI was carried by EMPs, and PDI inhibitor (RL90) inhibit EMPs-mediated platelet activation. (A) Bicolor flow cytometry confirmed EMPs carrying PDI. (B) The Duolink® in-situ proximity ligation assay was used to detect the direct binding of EMP-PDI and GPIIb/IIIa receptors on the platelet surface. The red dot granule represents PDI binding to GPIIb/IIIa receptor (scale = 100 μm). (C) Comparisons of the CD62p expression level on the platelet surface of EMPs+RL90 and EMPs+IgG. Values are expressed as mean±SD. Analyses were done by t-test for independent samples. *P<0.05 vs. EMPs+RL90 (n=3).