Figure 5. DEP induces bronchial epithelial cell autophagy and inflammation. BEAS-2B cells are pre-treated with 1.5 mM 3-MA or 10 nM Rap for 1 h, and then exposed to 5 ppm SRM 1650b. After 12 h, the cells and culture supernatants are collected. (A) Autophagy-related proteins LC3B and p62 expression in BEAS-2B cells are detected by western blot. (B) Autophagy induction is evaluated by LC3B immunostaining (× 400). Autophagosomes are identified as bright green dots. (C–E) Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 level are detected by ELISA. ***P < 0.001 vs. ctrl; #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01, and ###P < 0.001 vs. DEP group.