Figure 3. Effects of Grape skin extract (GSE) on (A) intracellular ATP and (B) reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of SH-SY5Y cells. The cells were treated with or without 20 μg/mL GSE for 6, 12, and 24 hr. After the treatment, intracellular ATP production levels were measured. And Intracellular ROS levels were detected by measuring fluorescence intensity of DCF oxidized by ROS. SH-SY5Y cells were pre-incubated with DCFH-DA for 1 h followed by treatment with growth medium or differentiation medium with or without 20 μg/mL GSE and 5 μM Aβ42 for 60 min. The fluorescence intensity was measured immediately after treatment. Data was set as % of non-treated cells (Control). Each bar represents the mean ± SEM (n = 5 independent experiments). ** P < 0.01 Compared with Control cells, ## P < 0.01 compared with Aβ42-treated cells by one-way ANOVA analysis.