Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 17 pp 21251—21267

Betulinic acid induces autophagy-dependent apoptosis via Bmi-1/ROS/AMPK-mTOR-ULK1 axis in human bladder cancer cells


Figure 2. BA triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells. (A) Flow cytometric analysis of apoptosis in EJ and T24 cells exposed to BA at various doses. Results are mean ± SD of 3 independent replicates. (B) Hoechst 33342 staining of EJ and T24 cells exposed to vehicle (DMSO) or 25 μM BA for 24 h. Representative images show abnormal or apoptotic cells (red arrows). (C) Western blot assessment of apoptosis-related factors (Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved PARP, and cleaved caspase-3) in control and BA-exposed cells. β-actin served as loading control. (D, E) Western blot assessment of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP expression (D) and CCK-8 analysis of cell viability (E) in EJ and T24 cells exposed to 25 μM BA with or without 20 μM Z-VAD-FMK (ZVF) for 24 h. con: control, *p<0.05, **p<0.01.