Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 17 pp 21251—21267

Betulinic acid induces autophagy-dependent apoptosis via Bmi-1/ROS/AMPK-mTOR-ULK1 axis in human bladder cancer cells


Figure 5. Autophagy mediates BA-induced apoptosis in bladder cancer cells. Cell viability and western blot assay results for EJ and T24 cells transfected with siATG7 or control siRNA (A) or pre-exposed to 10 μM CQ (B) or 250 nM rapamycin (Rap) (C) for 4 h prior to incubation with DMSO (control) or 25 μM BA for 24 h. The CCK-8 assay was used to assess cell viability. Western blot was employed to corroborate ATG7 deletion (A) and to analyze apoptosis (Bcl-2; cleaved caspase-3; cleaved PARP), and autophagy (LC3B-II) markers (AC). *p<0.05, **p<0.01.