Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 17 pp 21251—21267

Betulinic acid induces autophagy-dependent apoptosis via Bmi-1/ROS/AMPK-mTOR-ULK1 axis in human bladder cancer cells


Figure 7. BA-triggered autophagy-dependent apoptosis requires activation of the AMPK-mTOR-ULK1 axis. Cell viability and western blot assay results for EJ and T24 cells pre-exposed to 10 μM dorsomorphin (ComC) (A) or 500 μM AICAR (B) for 4 h and incubated with DMSO (control) or 25 μM BA for another 24 h. The CCK-8 assay was used for analysis of cell viability. Western blot was employed to determine the expression of cleaved PARP, p-AMPKα (Thr172), p-mTOR (Ser2448), p-ULK1 (Ser555), Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3, and LC3B-II. *p<0.05, **p<0.01.