Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 17 pp 21251—21267

Betulinic acid induces autophagy-dependent apoptosis via Bmi-1/ROS/AMPK-mTOR-ULK1 axis in human bladder cancer cells


Figure 8. Bmi-1 overexpression partially reverses BA-induced ROS overproduction, migration inhibition, and autophagy-dependent apoptosis. Stable overexpression of Bmi-1 was established in EJ and T24 cells (EJ-con/EJ-Bmi-1 and T24-con/T24-Bmi-1) via lentiviral transduction before exposure to BA. (A) RT-qPCR analysis of relative Bmi-1 expression in control and Bmi-1-transduced cells. (B) Assessment of intracellular ROS contents. (C) Wound healing assay results. (D) Transwell migration analysis. (E) Western blot analysis of p-AMPKα, p-mTOR, p-ULK1, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3, Bmi-1, LC3B-II, p62, and cleaved PARP expression. (F) Apoptosis determination by flow cytometry. *p<0.05, **p<0.01.