Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 16 pp 20748—20761

Enriched environment remedies cognitive dysfunctions and synaptic plasticity through NMDAR-Ca2+-Activin A circuit in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion rats

EE improves VCI in CCH rats. (A) Neurological impairment was measured by the Bederson scoring method. Memory performance was measured in the Morris water maze test. Neurological deficit scores. (B–G) Morris water maze test. The rats were put in the water randomly at any of the four quadrants. The incubation period in hidden platform is recorded as entering the water to climbing onto the platform. The training period is limited to one minute. If the rats could not find the hidden platform within one minute, it was recorded as 1 minute. After that, the rats were placed on the platform to rest for 1 minute to help them reposition the platform. The motion trajectories of rats were photographed and recorded by the system. The distance, duration, rest time, water intake times and water intake rate were statistically analyzed. The experiment was designed to assess the animals’ short-term memory and learning abilities. (B) The escape latency was shown. (C) The learning curve was shown. (D) The time in the target quadrants was shown. (E) The numbers of crossing platform were shown. (F) The swimming trajectories were shown. (G) The swimming distance was shown. *p #p N = 5. *p #p

Figure 1. EE improves VCI in CCH rats. (A) Neurological impairment was measured by the Bederson scoring method. Memory performance was measured in the Morris water maze test. Neurological deficit scores. (BG) Morris water maze test. The rats were put in the water randomly at any of the four quadrants. The incubation period in hidden platform is recorded as entering the water to climbing onto the platform. The training period is limited to one minute. If the rats could not find the hidden platform within one minute, it was recorded as 1 minute. After that, the rats were placed on the platform to rest for 1 minute to help them reposition the platform. The motion trajectories of rats were photographed and recorded by the system. The distance, duration, rest time, water intake times and water intake rate were statistically analyzed. The experiment was designed to assess the animals’ short-term memory and learning abilities. (B) The escape latency was shown. (C) The learning curve was shown. (D) The time in the target quadrants was shown. (E) The numbers of crossing platform were shown. (F) The swimming trajectories were shown. (G) The swimming distance was shown. *p < 0.05, vs. Sham group; #p < 0.05, vs. CCH group. Sham group, treated with an equal volume of vehicle; CCH group, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and no treatment; EE group, CCH and treated with EE. N = 5. *p < 0.05, #p < 0.05.