Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 16 pp 20748—20761

Enriched environment remedies cognitive dysfunctions and synaptic plasticity through NMDAR-Ca2+-Activin A circuit in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion rats

EE alleviates brain damage in CCH rats. (A) TUNEL staining was used to detect neuronal apoptosis in the frontal cortex and hippocampal in each group. Apoptosis-related proteins were detected by Western blot. TUNEL staining. Scale bar = 50 μm. *p #p N = 5. (B) Western blot. *p #p N = 3. Sham group, treated with an equal volume of vehicle; CCH group, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and no treatment; EE group, CCH and treated with EE. *p #p

Figure 2. EE alleviates brain damage in CCH rats. (A) TUNEL staining was used to detect neuronal apoptosis in the frontal cortex and hippocampal in each group. Apoptosis-related proteins were detected by Western blot. TUNEL staining. Scale bar = 50 μm. *p < 0.05, vs. Sham group; #p < 0.05, vs. CCH group. N = 5. (B) Western blot. *p < 0.05, vs. Sham group; #p < 0.05, vs. CCH group. N = 3. Sham group, treated with an equal volume of vehicle; CCH group, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and no treatment; EE group, CCH and treated with EE. *p < 0.05, #p < 0.05.