Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 17 pp 20935—20961

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy alleviates vascular dysfunction and amyloid burden in an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model and in elderly patients

HBOT reduces the population of newly-formed plaques and reduces the volume of pre-existing plaques. Amyloid plaques were visualized in vivo using two-photon microscopy imaging in live animals by injecting methoxy-X04 24 h before every imaging session. (A) Representative images of plaques in the somatosensory cortex of HBO-treated 5XFAD (n=4, right panel) and control 5XFAD mice (n=3, left panel) before (upper panel) and after 1 month of treatment (lower panel); red circles indicate the change in specific plaques, scale bar: 50 μm. (B) Analysis of the volume of pre-existing plaques before and after each treatment in the same animal, categorized according to initial plaque size. (C, D) Distribution of plaque populations by volume in control 5XFAD (C; before: N=1619, after: N=3180) and HBO-treated 5XFAD mice (D; before: N=3425, after: N=3524). Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures and post-hoc Fisher LSD tests were performed. Values represent means ± SEM. *P P P

Figure 2. HBOT reduces the population of newly-formed plaques and reduces the volume of pre-existing plaques. Amyloid plaques were visualized in vivo using two-photon microscopy imaging in live animals by injecting methoxy-X04 24 h before every imaging session. (A) Representative images of plaques in the somatosensory cortex of HBO-treated 5XFAD (n=4, right panel) and control 5XFAD mice (n=3, left panel) before (upper panel) and after 1 month of treatment (lower panel); red circles indicate the change in specific plaques, scale bar: 50 μm. (B) Analysis of the volume of pre-existing plaques before and after each treatment in the same animal, categorized according to initial plaque size. (C, D) Distribution of plaque populations by volume in control 5XFAD (C; before: N=1619, after: N=3180) and HBO-treated 5XFAD mice (D; before: N=3425, after: N=3524). Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures and post-hoc Fisher LSD tests were performed. Values represent means ± SEM. *P < 0.05, *** P < 0.001, **** P < 0.0001.