Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 17 pp 20935—20961

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy alleviates vascular dysfunction and amyloid burden in an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model and in elderly patients

HBOT reduces hypoxia and HIF1α transcription factor levels in the hippocampal area of 6-month old 5XFAD mice. (A) Uptake of Hypoxyprobe by low oxygen-bearing cells was visualized by immunostaining. Representative images of the presence of hypoxia in the hippocampal field of HBO-treated wt (n=4, right upper panel) and 5XFAD mice (n=4, right lower panel), and control wt (n=5, left upper panel) and 5XFAD mice (n=3, left lower panel); x4 magnification, scale bar: 1000 μm. (B, C) Quantification of the percentage of the CA3 (B) and CA1 (C) areas presenting Hypoxyprobe-related fluorescence. (D) Western blots of HIF-1α from hippocampi extracted from HBO-treated and control 5XFAD mice and wt littermates. (E) Quantification of Western blots in (D), presented as percentage of wt control, normalized to GAPDH levels (n = 4–5/group). Two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Fisher LSD tests were performed. Values represent means ± SEM. *P P P

Figure 6. HBOT reduces hypoxia and HIF1α transcription factor levels in the hippocampal area of 6-month old 5XFAD mice. (A) Uptake of Hypoxyprobe by low oxygen-bearing cells was visualized by immunostaining. Representative images of the presence of hypoxia in the hippocampal field of HBO-treated wt (n=4, right upper panel) and 5XFAD mice (n=4, right lower panel), and control wt (n=5, left upper panel) and 5XFAD mice (n=3, left lower panel); x4 magnification, scale bar: 1000 μm. (B, C) Quantification of the percentage of the CA3 (B) and CA1 (C) areas presenting Hypoxyprobe-related fluorescence. (D) Western blots of HIF-1α from hippocampi extracted from HBO-treated and control 5XFAD mice and wt littermates. (E) Quantification of Western blots in (D), presented as percentage of wt control, normalized to GAPDH levels (n = 4–5/group). Two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Fisher LSD tests were performed. Values represent means ± SEM. *P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001.