Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 17 pp 21470—21482

SCFAs promote intestinal double-negative T cells to regulate the inflammatory response mediated by NLRP3 inflammasome

Effects of Fas-IN and TNFR1-IN on the expression of inflammatory factors and NLRP3 activation. (A–C) Results of expression of inflammatory factors (x¯ ± s, n = 10): SCFAs could up-regulate the expression of inflammatory factors (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in peripheral blood, intestine and brain of mice, comparison with AD group, *P #P D–E) Result of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in mouse intestine (x¯ ± s, n = 10): Fas-IN and TNFR1-IN could down-regulate the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, and down-regulate the expression of NLRP3, ASC, cleaved-Caspase-1 and pro-Caspase-1, comparison with AD group, *P #P F–G) Expression level of microglia activation marker (IBA-1 and GFAP) in brain tissue (x¯ ± s, n = 10): Fas-IN and TNFR1-IN could induce the expression of IBA-1 and GFAP. Comparison with AD group, *P #P

Figure 4. Effects of Fas-IN and TNFR1-IN on the expression of inflammatory factors and NLRP3 activation. (AC) Results of expression of inflammatory factors (x¯ ± s, n = 10): SCFAs could up-regulate the expression of inflammatory factors (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in peripheral blood, intestine and brain of mice, comparison with AD group, *P < 0.05; comparison with SCFAs group, #P < 0.05. (DE) Result of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in mouse intestine (x¯ ± s, n = 10): Fas-IN and TNFR1-IN could down-regulate the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, and down-regulate the expression of NLRP3, ASC, cleaved-Caspase-1 and pro-Caspase-1, comparison with AD group, *P < 0.05; comparison with SCFAs group, #P < 0.05. (FG) Expression level of microglia activation marker (IBA-1 and GFAP) in brain tissue (x¯ ± s, n = 10): Fas-IN and TNFR1-IN could induce the expression of IBA-1 and GFAP. Comparison with AD group, *P < 0.05; comparison with SCFAs group, #P < 0.05.