Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 17 pp 20962—20991

Glutamine promotes escape from therapy-induced senescence in tumor cells

The effect of glutamine deprivation on TIS escape. (A) Doxorubicin-induced senescent MDA-MB-231 cells were grown in the presence or in the absence of glutamine. Colonies that evaded the senescent growth arrest were counted. Data are mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments. (B) Doxorubicin-induced senescent TS/A cells were grown in the presence or in the absence of glutamine. Colonies that evaded the senescent growth arrest were stained and counted. Data are mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments. (C) Doxorubicin-induced senescent ID8 cells were grown in the presence or in the absence of glutamine. A representative image of a colony escape assay in ID8 cells is shown. Colonies that evaded the senescent growth arrest were stained and counted. Data are mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments. (D) CisPt-induced senescent MDA-MB-231 cells were grown in the presence or in the absence of glutamine. Colonies that evaded the senescent growth arrest were counted. Data are mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments. (E) Effect of glutamine on CD44+/CD24− subpopulation. MDA-MB-231 cells were grown for 48 hours in the presence or in the absence of glutamine. Expression of CD44 and CD24 was analyzed by flow cytometry. Data are mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments. (F) GPNA treatment abolishes escape from TIS. Doxorubicin-induced senescent MDA-MB-231 cells were grown in complete medium (+Gln), in the absence or in the presence of 1 mM GPNA. Colonies that evaded the senescent growth arrest were stained and counted. Data are mean ± S.D. of two independent experiments.

Figure 6. The effect of glutamine deprivation on TIS escape. (A) Doxorubicin-induced senescent MDA-MB-231 cells were grown in the presence or in the absence of glutamine. Colonies that evaded the senescent growth arrest were counted. Data are mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments. (B) Doxorubicin-induced senescent TS/A cells were grown in the presence or in the absence of glutamine. Colonies that evaded the senescent growth arrest were stained and counted. Data are mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments. (C) Doxorubicin-induced senescent ID8 cells were grown in the presence or in the absence of glutamine. A representative image of a colony escape assay in ID8 cells is shown. Colonies that evaded the senescent growth arrest were stained and counted. Data are mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments. (D) CisPt-induced senescent MDA-MB-231 cells were grown in the presence or in the absence of glutamine. Colonies that evaded the senescent growth arrest were counted. Data are mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments. (E) Effect of glutamine on CD44+/CD24 subpopulation. MDA-MB-231 cells were grown for 48 hours in the presence or in the absence of glutamine. Expression of CD44 and CD24 was analyzed by flow cytometry. Data are mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments. (F) GPNA treatment abolishes escape from TIS. Doxorubicin-induced senescent MDA-MB-231 cells were grown in complete medium (+Gln), in the absence or in the presence of 1 mM GPNA. Colonies that evaded the senescent growth arrest were stained and counted. Data are mean ± S.D. of two independent experiments.