Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 17 pp 20915—20934

Reduced uremic metabolites are prominent feature of sarcopenia, distinct from antioxidative markers for frailty

Ten mitochondrial metabolites are diagnostic for sarcopenia. (A) Three short-chain carnitines and their derivatives (acetyl-carnitine, isovaleryl-carnitine, and butyro-betaine) decreased significantly in sarcopenia. Isovaleryl-carnitine was significantly decreased in the low-SMI group. (B) Four TCA-related metabolites (2-oxoglutarate, cis-aconitate, succinate, and pantothenate) decreased significantly in sarcopenia. 2-oxoglutarate and cis-aconitate were significantly reduced in the low-SMI group. (C) N-acetyl-glutamate, which is related to the urea cycle, was significantly diminished in sarcopenia. (D) Hippurate, which is related to ammonia synthesis, was significantly decreased in the low-SMI group. (E) Aspartate, which is involved in the mitochondrial malate-aspartate shuttle, was significantly increased in sarcopenia. *p **p

Figure 2. Ten mitochondrial metabolites are diagnostic for sarcopenia. (A) Three short-chain carnitines and their derivatives (acetyl-carnitine, isovaleryl-carnitine, and butyro-betaine) decreased significantly in sarcopenia. Isovaleryl-carnitine was significantly decreased in the low-SMI group. (B) Four TCA-related metabolites (2-oxoglutarate, cis-aconitate, succinate, and pantothenate) decreased significantly in sarcopenia. 2-oxoglutarate and cis-aconitate were significantly reduced in the low-SMI group. (C) N-acetyl-glutamate, which is related to the urea cycle, was significantly diminished in sarcopenia. (D) Hippurate, which is related to ammonia synthesis, was significantly decreased in the low-SMI group. (E) Aspartate, which is involved in the mitochondrial malate-aspartate shuttle, was significantly increased in sarcopenia. *p < 0.05 Error bars represent means ± SD. **p < 0.01. Error bars represent means ± SD.