Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 17 pp 20915—20934

Reduced uremic metabolites are prominent feature of sarcopenia, distinct from antioxidative markers for frailty

Sarcopenic markers related to methylated metabolites and kidney disease. (A) Five methylated amino acids and their derivatives (dimethyl-arginine, N1-methyl-histidine, dimethyl-proline, trimethyl-tyrosine, and butyro-betaine) were significantly decreased in sarcopenia or the low-SMI group. 4 metabolites (N1-methyl-histidine, trimethyl-tyrosine, dimethyl-arginine, and dimethyl-proline) were significantly decreased in the sarcopenia group. Three metabolites (N1-methyl-histidine, dimethyl-arginine, butyro-betaine) were significantly decreased in the low-SMI group. (B) Three methylated nucleotides (dimethyl-guanosine, N1-methyl-adenosine, and N1-methyl-guanosine) were significantly decreased in sarcopenia. Dimethyl-guanosine was significantly decreased in the low-SMI group. (C) Two uremic markers related to purine metabolism (hypoxanthine and urate) were involved in sarcopenia. Hypoxanthine was significantly decreased in sarcopenia, whereas urate was significantly decreased in the low-SMI group. (D) Eight metabolites related to kidney disease (creatinine, dimethyl-arginine, dimethyl-guanosine, N1-methyl-guanosine, quinolinic acid, 4-guanidinobutanoate, myo-inositol, and phenylalanine) were significantly decreased in sarcopenia. Three metabolites (creatinine, dimethyl-arginine, and dimethyl-guanosine) were also significantly decreased in the low-SMI group. *p **p

Figure 3. Sarcopenic markers related to methylated metabolites and kidney disease. (A) Five methylated amino acids and their derivatives (dimethyl-arginine, N1-methyl-histidine, dimethyl-proline, trimethyl-tyrosine, and butyro-betaine) were significantly decreased in sarcopenia or the low-SMI group. 4 metabolites (N1-methyl-histidine, trimethyl-tyrosine, dimethyl-arginine, and dimethyl-proline) were significantly decreased in the sarcopenia group. Three metabolites (N1-methyl-histidine, dimethyl-arginine, butyro-betaine) were significantly decreased in the low-SMI group. (B) Three methylated nucleotides (dimethyl-guanosine, N1-methyl-adenosine, and N1-methyl-guanosine) were significantly decreased in sarcopenia. Dimethyl-guanosine was significantly decreased in the low-SMI group. (C) Two uremic markers related to purine metabolism (hypoxanthine and urate) were involved in sarcopenia. Hypoxanthine was significantly decreased in sarcopenia, whereas urate was significantly decreased in the low-SMI group. (D) Eight metabolites related to kidney disease (creatinine, dimethyl-arginine, dimethyl-guanosine, N1-methyl-guanosine, quinolinic acid, 4-guanidinobutanoate, myo-inositol, and phenylalanine) were significantly decreased in sarcopenia. Three metabolites (creatinine, dimethyl-arginine, and dimethyl-guanosine) were also significantly decreased in the low-SMI group. *p < 0.05 Error bars represent means ± SD. **p < 0.01. Error bars represent means ± SD.