Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 17 pp 21642—21658

Astrocyte-derived exosomes protect hippocampal neurons after traumatic brain injury by suppressing mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptosis


Figure 2. AS-Exos ameliorate TBI-induced neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits in rats. (AG) Neurological function test results of TBI, TBI+AS-Exo, Sham, and Sham+AS-Exo groups of rats including (A) Modified neurological severity score (mNSS), and results of (B) Forelimb placement, (C) Rotating rod, and (DG) MWM tests. All data are represented as means ± standard error (n = 8 per group). Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Bonferroni correction. #P < 0.05 or ##P < 0.01 vs. the Sham group; *P < 0.05 or **P < 0.01 vs. the TBI group.