Figure 4. AS-Exos alleviates TBI-induced oxidative stress in the rat hippocampal tissues. (A) Fluorescence images show DCF-stained hippocampal tissues from TBI, TBI+AS-Exo, Sham, and Sham+AS-Exo groups of rats. (B) Bar graphs illustrate relative DCF fluorescence intensity in the hippocampal tissues from the four groups of rats. (C) Amplex red hydrogen peroxide/peroxidase assay results show release of mitochondrial H2O2 in the four groups. (D) SOD activity, (E) CAT activity and (F) Reduced GSH levels in the hippocampal tissues isolated from TBI+AS-Exo, Sham, and Sham+AS-Exo groups of rats (48 h after TBI). All data are represented as means ± SEM (n = 5 per group). Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Bonferroni correction. #P < 0.05 or ##P < 0.01 vs. Sham group; *P < 0.05 or **P < 0.01 vs. TBI group.