Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 18 pp 22040—22058

A2E-induced inflammation and angiogenesis in RPE cells in vitro are modulated by PPAR-α, -β/δ, -γ, and RXR antagonists and by norbixin

Norbixin does not transactivate PPARs, but inhibits PPARγ transactivation induced by TGZ. Effect of GW9578, GW0742 and TGZ and of increasing norbixin (NBX) concentrations on over-expressed PPARα (A), PPARβ/δ (B) and PPARγ (C). Effect of GW9578 (20 μM), of GW0742 (30 μM) and of TGZ (20 μM) alone or in competition with NBX (20 μM) on over-expressed PPARα (D), PPARβ/δ (E) and PPARγ (F) transactivation. Bars represent mean ± s.e.m. with n = 3–6. *p **p ****p #p

Figure 2. Norbixin does not transactivate PPARs, but inhibits PPARγ transactivation induced by TGZ. Effect of GW9578, GW0742 and TGZ and of increasing norbixin (NBX) concentrations on over-expressed PPARα (A), PPARβ/δ (B) and PPARγ (C). Effect of GW9578 (20 μM), of GW0742 (30 μM) and of TGZ (20 μM) alone or in competition with NBX (20 μM) on over-expressed PPARα (D), PPARβ/δ (E) and PPARγ (F) transactivation. Bars represent mean ± s.e.m. with n = 3–6. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ****p < 0.0001 compared to CONT corresponding to DMSO alone added to the medium; #p < 0.01 compared to TGZ (One-way ANOVA, Dunnett’s post-test).