Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 18 pp 22040—22058

A2E-induced inflammation and angiogenesis in RPE cells in vitro are modulated by PPAR-α, -β/δ, -γ, and RXR antagonists and by norbixin

Norbixin inhibits the transactivation of PPARs induced by A2E. Effect of A2E (20 μM), NBX (20 μM) and A2E (20 μM) + NBX (20 μM) on endogenous PPAR transactivation (A). Effect of A2E (20 μM), NBX (20 μM) and A2E (20 μM) + NBX (20 μM) on over-expressed PPARα (B), PPARβ/δ (C) and PPARγ (D). Bars represent mean ± s.e.m. with n = 3–6. *or #p ###p ****or ####p

Figure 3. Norbixin inhibits the transactivation of PPARs induced by A2E. Effect of A2E (20 μM), NBX (20 μM) and A2E (20 μM) + NBX (20 μM) on endogenous PPAR transactivation (A). Effect of A2E (20 μM), NBX (20 μM) and A2E (20 μM) + NBX (20 μM) on over-expressed PPARα (B), PPARβ/δ (C) and PPARγ (D). Bars represent mean ± s.e.m. with n = 3–6. *or #p < 0.05, ###p < 0.001, ****or ####p < 0.0001 compared to CONT (DMSO alone) or to A2E, respectively (One-way ANOVA, Dunnett’s post-test).