Figure 4. Norbixin inhibits the transactivation of NF-κB and AP-1 and regulates the expression of inflammatory and angiogenic factors stimulated by A2E in RPE cells in vitro. Effect of A2E (20 μM), NBX (20 μM) and NBX (20 μM) + A2E (20 μM) on NF-κB (A) and AP-1 (B) transactivation. Effect of A2E (30 μM), NBX (20 μM) and NBX (20 μM) + A2E (30 μM) on IL-6 (C), IL-8 (D), IL-18 (E), CCL2 (F), VEGF (G) and MMP9 (H) mRNA expression, and on AKT (I) and ERK (J) protein phosphorylation. Bars represent mean ± s.e.m. with n = 3–9. *or #p < 0.05, **or ##p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ****or ####p < 0.0001 compared to CONT (DMSO alone) or to A2E, respectively (One-way ANOVA, Dunnett’s post-test).