Figure 5. PPAR-α and PPAR-γ antagonists partly reproduce the effects of norbixin on inflammation but not on VEGF expression induced by A2E in RPE cells in vitro. Effect of PPAR-α, -β/δ and -γ selective antagonists MK886 (MK, 1 μM), GSK3787 (GSK, 1 μM) and T007907 (T007, 10 μM) respectively alone or with A2E (20 μM) on PPAR (A), NF-κB (B) and AP-1 (C) transactivation, and on IL-6 (D), IL-8 (E) and VEGF (F) mRNA expression. Bars represent mean ± s.e.m. with n = 3 * or #p < 0.05, ** or ##p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, **** or ####p < 0.0001 compared to CONT (DMSO alone) or to A2E, respectively (One-way ANOVA, Dunnett's post-test).