Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 18 pp 22040—22058

A2E-induced inflammation and angiogenesis in RPE cells in vitro are modulated by PPAR-α, -β/δ, -γ, and RXR antagonists and by norbixin

PPAR-α, PPAR- β/δ and PPAR-γ antagonists used in co-treatment partly reproduce the effects of norbixin on inflammation but not on IL-6 expression and PPAR transactivation induced by A2E in RPE cells in vitro. Effect of a mixture of PPAR-α, -β/δ and -γ selective antagonists MK886 (MK, 1 μM), GSK3787 (GSK, 1 μM) and T007907 (T007, 10 μM) alone or with A2E (20 μM) on NF-κB (A), AP-1 (B) transactivation, and on IL-8 (C), VEGFa (D) and IL-6 (E), mRNA expression. Effects on PPAR (F) and RXR (G) transactivation. Bars represent mean ± s.e.m. with n = 3–6 and ** or ##p ***p **** or ####p

Figure 6. PPAR-α, PPAR- β/δ and PPAR-γ antagonists used in co-treatment partly reproduce the effects of norbixin on inflammation but not on IL-6 expression and PPAR transactivation induced by A2E in RPE cells in vitro. Effect of a mixture of PPAR-α, -β/δ and -γ selective antagonists MK886 (MK, 1 μM), GSK3787 (GSK, 1 μM) and T007907 (T007, 10 μM) alone or with A2E (20 μM) on NF-κB (A), AP-1 (B) transactivation, and on IL-8 (C), VEGFa (D) and IL-6 (E), mRNA expression. Effects on PPAR (F) and RXR (G) transactivation. Bars represent mean ± s.e.m. with n = 3–6 and ** or ##p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, **** or ####p < 0.0001 compared to CONT (DMSO alone) or to A2E, respectively (One-way ANOVA, Dunnett's post-test).