Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 18 pp 22040—22058

A2E-induced inflammation and angiogenesis in RPE cells in vitro are modulated by PPAR-α, -β/δ, -γ, and RXR antagonists and by norbixin


Figure 8. Partial inhibition of RXR and PPAR transactivation by the pan-RXR-antagonist HX531 reduces A2E-induced inflammation and angiogenesis. Effect of A2E (20 μM), HX531 (5 μM) alone and HX531 (5 μM) + A2E (20 μM) on RXR (A), PPAR (B), NF-κB (C) and AP-1 (D) transactivation, and on IL-6 (E), IL-8 (F) and VEGF (G) mRNA expression. Bars represent mean ± s.e.m. with n = 3–4. *p < 0.05, ** or ##p < 0.01, ###p < 0.001, **** or ####p < 0.0001 compared to CONT (DMSO alone) or to A2E respectively (One-way ANOVA, Dunnett's post-test).