Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 18 pp 22502—22515

Melatonin inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion by inducing ROS-mediated apoptosis via suppression of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in gallbladder cancer cells

Melatonin inhibits proliferation in GBC-SD and NOZ cells. (A) Cell viability of GBC-SD cells after treatment with different melatonin concentrations (0, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mM) for 24 hours. (B) Cell viability of NOZ cells after treatment with different melatonin concentrations (0, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mM) for 24 hours. (C) Cell viability of GBC-SD cells after treatment with 1 mM melatonin at different times (0, 12, 24, 48 h) by CCK-8 assay. (D) Cell viability of NOZ cells after treatment with 1 mM melatonin at different times (0, 12, 24, 48 h) by CCK-8 assay. (E) Colony formation assay of GBC-SD cells with or without 1 mM melatonin treatment for 14 days. (F) Colony formation assay of NOZ cells with or without 1 mM melatonin treatment for 14 days. Three biological replicates were performed. Data are presented as mean ± SD. Mel, melatonin; ***P

Figure 1. Melatonin inhibits proliferation in GBC-SD and NOZ cells. (A) Cell viability of GBC-SD cells after treatment with different melatonin concentrations (0, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mM) for 24 hours. (B) Cell viability of NOZ cells after treatment with different melatonin concentrations (0, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mM) for 24 hours. (C) Cell viability of GBC-SD cells after treatment with 1 mM melatonin at different times (0, 12, 24, 48 h) by CCK-8 assay. (D) Cell viability of NOZ cells after treatment with 1 mM melatonin at different times (0, 12, 24, 48 h) by CCK-8 assay. (E) Colony formation assay of GBC-SD cells with or without 1 mM melatonin treatment for 14 days. (F) Colony formation assay of NOZ cells with or without 1 mM melatonin treatment for 14 days. Three biological replicates were performed. Data are presented as mean ± SD. Mel, melatonin; ***P < 0.001.