Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 18 pp 22502—22515

Melatonin inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion by inducing ROS-mediated apoptosis via suppression of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in gallbladder cancer cells

Melatonin suppresses the migration and invasion of gallbladder cancer cells. (A) The wound-healing assay in GBC-SD and NOZ cells treated with or without 1 mM melatonin for 48 h. (B) The percentage of wound closure in GBC-SD and NOZ cells. (C) The migration and invasion assay in GBC-SD cells treated with or without 1 mM melatonin. (D) Transwell assays assessed GBC-SD cell number per filed. (E) The migration and invasion assay in NOZ cells treated with or without 1 mM melatonin. (F) Transwell assays assessed NOZ cell number per filed. Three biological replicates were performed. Data are presented as mean ± SD. Mel, melatonin; ***P **P *P

Figure 2. Melatonin suppresses the migration and invasion of gallbladder cancer cells. (A) The wound-healing assay in GBC-SD and NOZ cells treated with or without 1 mM melatonin for 48 h. (B) The percentage of wound closure in GBC-SD and NOZ cells. (C) The migration and invasion assay in GBC-SD cells treated with or without 1 mM melatonin. (D) Transwell assays assessed GBC-SD cell number per filed. (E) The migration and invasion assay in NOZ cells treated with or without 1 mM melatonin. (F) Transwell assays assessed NOZ cell number per filed. Three biological replicates were performed. Data are presented as mean ± SD. Mel, melatonin; ***P < 0.001; **P < 0.01; *P < 0.05.