Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 18 pp 22502—22515

Melatonin inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion by inducing ROS-mediated apoptosis via suppression of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in gallbladder cancer cells

Melatonin suppresses the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. (A) The protein expressions of PI3K, p-PI3K, p-Akt, and p-mTOR were detected by Western blotting after GBC-SD cells were treated with 1 mM melatonin for 0, 12, 24, and 48 hours. (B) Relative protein expressions were quantified in GBC-SD cells. (C) The protein expressions of PI3K, p-PI3K, p-Akt, and p-mTOR were detected by Western blotting after NOZ cells were treated with 1 mM melatonin for 0, 12, 24, and 48 hours. (D) Relative protein expressions were quantified in NOZ cells. (E, F) The inhibitory effects of 1 mM melatonin in GBC-SD and NOZ cells were undermined after co-treatment with a PI3K activator 740 Y-P (30 uM) for 48 h. Three biological replicates were performed. Data are presented as mean ± SD. Mel, melatonin; ****P ***P **P *P

Figure 5. Melatonin suppresses the activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. (A) The protein expressions of PI3K, p-PI3K, p-Akt, and p-mTOR were detected by Western blotting after GBC-SD cells were treated with 1 mM melatonin for 0, 12, 24, and 48 hours. (B) Relative protein expressions were quantified in GBC-SD cells. (C) The protein expressions of PI3K, p-PI3K, p-Akt, and p-mTOR were detected by Western blotting after NOZ cells were treated with 1 mM melatonin for 0, 12, 24, and 48 hours. (D) Relative protein expressions were quantified in NOZ cells. (E, F) The inhibitory effects of 1 mM melatonin in GBC-SD and NOZ cells were undermined after co-treatment with a PI3K activator 740 Y-P (30 uM) for 48 h. Three biological replicates were performed. Data are presented as mean ± SD. Mel, melatonin; ****P < 0.0001; ***P < 0.001; **P < 0.01; *P < 0.05.